What, Where, How and When

 1. Short Questions:

   a. What is history?

   Answer: History is the study of past events, people, and civilizations.

   b. Define archaeology.

   Answer: Archaeology is the study of past human cultures through the excavation and analysis of artifacts and remains.

   c. Name the tools used by historians and archaeologists to study the past.

   Answer: Historians and archaeologists use written records, artifacts, coins, inscriptions, buildings, and monuments to study the past.

   d. What do you understand by the term 'chronology'?

   Answer: Chronology refers to the arrangement of events in the order of their occurrence in time.

   e. Who were the hunter-gatherers?

   Answer: Hunter-gatherers were early human beings who survived by hunting animals and gathering edible plants.

   f. Name the earliest metal used by humans.

   Answer: Copper was the earliest metal used by humans.

   g. What is carbon dating?

   Answer: Carbon dating is a method used by archaeologists to determine the age of ancient artifacts and fossils based on their carbon content.

   h. Which tools were used for weaving in ancient times?

   Answer: In ancient times, people used hand-operated tools like the spindle and loom for weaving.

2. Medium Questions:

   a. Explain how historians and archaeologists find out about the past.

   Answer: Historians and archaeologists use various sources like inscriptions, coins, artifacts, and written records to study the past. They conduct excavations and analyze the findings to piece together historical events.

   b. Describe the lifestyle of hunter-gatherers.

   Answer: Hunter-gatherers were nomadic people who lived in small groups. They hunted animals and gathered fruits, nuts, and roots for food. Their life was dependent on the availability of resources in nature.

   c. What were the main features of the Indus Valley Civilization?

   Answer: The Indus Valley Civilization had well-planned cities with advanced drainage systems and grid-like street patterns. They were skilled in pottery, had a system of writing (undeciphered), and engaged in trade with other civilizations.

   d. How did the knowledge of agriculture revolutionize human life?

   Answer: The knowledge of agriculture led to the domestication of plants and animals, allowing people to settle in one place and form permanent settlements. This led to the development of civilizations.

   e. Discuss the significance of fire in ancient times.

   Answer: Fire was crucial for early humans as it provided warmth, protection from wild animals, and a means to cook food. It also played a role in the development of early tools and pottery.

3. Long Questions:

   a. Compare and contrast the lifestyles of early humans (Paleolithic Age) and settled farmers (Neolithic Age).

   Answer: The Paleolithic Age was characterized by a nomadic lifestyle of hunter-gatherers who relied on nature for food. In contrast, the Neolithic Age saw the emergence of settled farming communities, leading to the domestication of plants and animals.

   b. Analyze the factors that led to the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization.

   Answer: The decline of the Indus Valley Civilization is believed to be a result of factors such as environmental changes, floods, and invasion by outside groups.

   c. How do historians use different sources to understand the past? Explain with examples.

   Answer: Historians use various sources like inscriptions, coins, pottery, and written records to understand the past. For example, Ashoka's inscriptions on pillars and rocks help us learn about his reign and policies.

What, Where, How and When What, Where, How and When Reviewed by Aapka Guide on Wednesday, July 26, 2023 Rating: 5

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